The impact of Olympic Games on the economy of the hosting nation

Hosting Olympic Games is an honor though an expensive one. Statistically, the economic impact of arranging the show is less positive than anticipated. Many cities ended up in debts after hosting the event, which is not worth the fame. The damage is more severe for cities without the necessary infrastructure; after all, they are likely to lose money yet during the submission of the bid to the International Olympic Committee. Even such an advanced city as Tokyo lost $150 million while billing for the 2016 Olympics. But hosting the Olympics is much more expensive. For comparison, London spent $14 billion for hosting the event in 2012.
Winning the bid for hosting the Olympics brings actually little benefit to the cities. They create temporary jobs and build infrastructure that shall be further maintained for the taxpayers’ money. It took 40 years for Montreal to pay off the debt that formed after the 1976 games, and most cities that hosted the Olympics are in a similar position. For many years, a large portion of the taxpayers’ money goes merely to pay off the debt for hosting the event that brings more fame than money.
The profit that can be generated by hosting the Olympic Games is very modest as compared to the overall expenses. For example, London spent $18 billion and earned $5.2 billion for hosting the 2012 Summer Olympics, while Beijing won back only $3.6 billion for $40 billion spent in the 2008 Summer Olympics. As for now, Los Angeles is the only city that got some profit from the games as the infrastructure for the 1984 Summer Olympics already existed there.

How much does the crowd at sports events influence the game? Does the roar of the fans or their chants really cause the team to win or lose?

Sports competition is not only a game between two teams. They are also the interaction between teams and huge communities of their fans or opponents. Spectators do not merely watch; they cheer and jeer expressing their support or disapproval of the team performance. Booing is meant to depress the opponent’s team and invigorate fan’s favorite players instead. Though cheering and jeering sounds simple, its effect on players is more complicated than that.
The research on the impact spectators make on athletes is scarce but there are some findings published in the North American Journal of Psychology in 2011. Though cheering sounds quite positive, fans create a constant distraction to players. The research team found that the spectators’ reaction affected basketball players least while baseball pitchers and golfers suffer the most from cheers and jeers. No wonder, fans can be loud and aggressive. The outcome of the game may be determined merely by the volume of noise in the stadium.
The problem is that athletes hardly distinguish cheers or jeers in the overall noise. They do not have the time to single out screams of the crowd because they must be fully concentrated on the game. Instead, the noise exacerbates the mental pressure for players who are already distressed physically. Sports psychologists work with players to raise their resistance and teach them how to ignore the crowd. Whether positive or not, distraction does not improve the team performance.

Have Olympic Games improved or worsened through history?

As we do not participate in horse races or do not throw discus now, Olympic Games have certainly changed for more than 12 centuries of existence. And these are not only sports that changed. Today the Olympics are all about marketing and commerce promoting sponsors and stimulating industries in the host countries. In Ancient times, the Olympics seemed to be all about the glory of the contestants and their lands. Or at least we got used to thinking so. In fact, modern Olympic Games have much more in common with the antique games.
To start with the idea, it has not changed much since Ancient Greece. Athletes participating in the Olympics always seek glory. In ancient times, perhaps, participants were a bit more motivated by money; there is the evidence that victors of the top contests achieved not only a symbolic prize but quite a tangible reward like horses or bags of money from their hometown authorities. Besides, sports were not about healthy living in Ancient Greece. The Olympics were also powered by military ideas creating good warriors of the athletes.
As for construction and organization costs, these problems definitely originated from ancient times. Though festivals were usually held in the same building, a renovation and maintenance list might have included 40 tasks with a huge price tag on each. The opening ceremony was also fabulous with many fans crowding in the streets as athletes went to Olympia. There was even security that restrained the crowd whipping the most rebellious spectators.
Religion was perhaps the only integral part of ancient sports that is missing now. The opening ceremony and contests were regularly interrupted by rituals of sacrificing animals to Zeus.

Can anyone compete in a marathon?

Running a marathon is a noble activity these days. Athletes, social activists, adherents of a healthy lifestyle, just everyone considers a marathon being a personal challenge. But is it actually so healthy for a non-athlete to run a 26-mile distance on a whim? Physicians are not so sure about that.
Before running their first marathon, everybody shall take into account that it is a sports event. And as always in sports, only prepared athletes are allowed into the competition. Running after a departing bus or chasing children in the garden does not count as a proper cardiovascular training. Even amateur runners prepare for months before they run a long distance and keep a diet. Potential dangers for unprepared athletes range from dehydration and micro-injuries to death.
No one shall run a marathon without preparation. First, it is important to think over the idea and address the healthcare provider. Some organizers require athletes to qualify before allowing them to participate in their marathon, and a basic screening is always required. Most amateur athletes regularly undergo examinations, and those running a marathon for the first time shall pass a couple of tests to determine their general health and the capacity of a cardiovascular system.
A standard test kit for runners starts with the Complete Blood Count. It allows to determine the level of hemoglobin and estimate the general state of the immune system. The next one is the test for diabetes. Marathon training lowers the blood glucose level and patients with diabetes always need a personalized training scheme for that reason. Runners obviously pass a few cardiac health tests. Monitoring heart function is essential and its neglect may cause death during the marathon. Doctors also recommend testing liver and kidney function before athletes start intense preparation.

Women in politics: why a small percentage of them succeed?

It appears that people are ready to vote for female candidates in presidential elections. In 2015, 92 percent of Gallup respondents said that they would vote for a well-qualified woman of their party. Merely 8 percent of the polled indicated that they would not cast a ballot for a woman in any case, which does not look so bad actually. These and more facts confirm the statement that many women are afraid to set foot in big politics in the first place. Females have few role models that encourage their participation in governing.
Female candidates seem to be less confident and less competitive as compared to men, especially in politics. They are more likely to be criticized for their views, actions, appearances, and other issues that do not even concern their qualification as a legislator. The gender bias that prevails in mass media shows that women can take little advantage of policy-making. If their names are not associated with scandals or speculations, probably no one in the party can notice their activity.
Many women are less likely to put everything at stake of winning the race. Unlike men, they take more responsibility for their family life which is much more than the competition. Women often have children to take care for and cannot spend days and nights in the office. Family men can allow themselves to do nothing but job if they are in business or in politics but family women often cannot shift this responsibility.
Women are not likely to strive in politics above all other things. It is a hostile environment for a woman who wants to do their job but not to fight.